Also called Bible of King Sancho or second Bible of Pamplona. It represents a milestone in the history of biblical illustration. A Bible in pictures. This unique manuscript was created in times of the Muslim threat, the Reconquista and the inevitable struggles between the Spanish kingdoms. The codex contains 976 illustrations of whole or half page, which impress with their energetic track, by the original composition and generosity to fill the spaces.
Fernando Perez (or Ferrando Petri or Ferrandus Petrus) Funes was a canon of the cathedral of Calahorra who became foreign minister between 1192 and 1194 King of Navarre Sancho VI the Wise. A monarch’s death in 1194, his successor, Sancho VII El Fuerte, he commissioned a Bible that ended in 1197. This Bible, commonly called Bible of King Sancho or Bible first of Pamplona, currently it is in the Municipal library of Amiens.
At the finish, the monarch commissioned a new copy of the Bible, as a gift for a woman of high social rank, who could be his sister Doña Berenguela at her wedding to Richard the Lionheart, or for his mother, Doña Sancha of Castile. This second Bible of Pamplona, we offer here was not a simple copy of the previous one, since Fernando Perez changed more than 40% of the scenes, adding that there were other 91 in the first. In addition it finer parchment, more gold and more expensive pigments was used, demonstrating the importance of the commission.
The manuscript, which was held in a monastic scriptorium of Pamplona remained in Spain until the early nineteenth century and was a highly valued manuscript, to the point that was backed in France in the early fourteenth century, in the style of this time, which is currently held in New York. Bought in Paris in 1814 for the collection of the Duke of Oettinger-Wallerstein collection, which in turn was acquired by the State of Bavaria in 1980, moving to the University Library of Augsburg, where under special protection measures remains today because due to the use that has endured for eight centuries, his parchment is in disrepair.
The manuscripts of Ferrando Petri may be regarded as exceptional works throughout the European altomedieval miniature. Unlike other authors, which give more importance to the text to images and sandwiching most of them within the text, the Bibles of Pamplona based all content on the thumbnails, which are scenes of a half page or full page with the names of the characters in the image, which only short explanatory texts, which have their origin in a version of the original Vulgate is then added below the vignette, all written in Gothic lower case letter.
In its 271 folios of parchment, which include 33 of the 46 books of the Bible, we find up to 976 scenes presented in the form of vignettes framed freehand upon completion of the images and text. They are drawn to fine pen and colored in soft watercolor basically green, yellow and ocher tones, using 61 of them also in gold leaf. Specialists believe that in its preparation have participated three scribes and at least four painters, one of them must be the own Ferrando Petri, who was also responsible for selecting and adapting the texts and ordering the illustrations.
With a harmonious and expressive overall composition and a strong plot the drawing, miniatures, which according to tradition the artist used as models to people outside their usual environment, offering scenes sometimes very complex and highly realistic and originality. All within a style but has, like most of the Spanish early medieval miniature multiple influences from various eras and origins, along with a presentation and forms of use of drawing and coloring very unusual at the time, It defined as a fully Romanesque work.
The codex contains the Old and New Testament, with a broad description of the genealogies of Christ, and the representation of 203 saints in chronological order, some closely linked to the Kingdom of Navarra, such as San Miguel de Aralar, San Saturnino, San Nicolas , San Martin, San Zoilo and holy Nunilona and Alodia, and an appendix with texts from the apocryphal gospels concerning the second coming of Christ. However it does not include the Apocalypse of St. John, something surprising in a Spanish manuscript.
The second of Pamplona Bible, both for its extensive manuscript He is the content of his day with the largest number of thumbnails is conservative as its special structure in large vignettes with very little text and the originality and vitality of their thumbnails fine pen drawn and colored with watercolors soft tones, set of features that only we find in other works of Ferrando Petri, it is one of the most complete and interesting biblical manuscripts of the Spanish Middle Ages.
Style: Thumbnail / Bibles. Font: Gotham. Illuminator: Fernando Perez (or Ferrando Petri) de Funes. Hometown: Pamplona, Navarra (Spain). Dating: 1200. Current situation: University Library of Augsburg, Bavaria (Germany). Reference: Collection Oettinger-Wallerstein, I.2.4º 15. Other names Cod. Second of Pamplona Bible. Dimensions 23.5 cm x 16. 544 parchment pages, with 61 pages decorated with gold leaf. 976 individual scenes.
Complete facsimile edition of 2005. Facsimile in case box and book study. In perfect state.
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